As regular readers of this blog know, I went through a brief period at age 12, lasting roughly from the fall of 1969 through the spring of 1970, when, for one reason or another, I became disaffected with comic books. By June, 1970, my interest in them was again on the increase, but I wasn’t quite all the way back yet; and one unfortunate consequence of this was that I failed to buy Justice League of America #82 off the stands when it was released that month. Why was missing this one comic such a big deal? Simply because it featured the first chapter of that year’s two-part team-up between the Justice League of America and their counterparts on “Earth-Two”, the Justice Society of America — an annual summertime tradition at DC Comics ever since 1963, and one in which I’d faithfully participated ever since 1966. That mean that not only had I been buying and enjoying these mini-epics for most of the time I’d been reading comics, but for a significant chunk of my life, period. Four years is a pretty substantial period of time when you’re only twelve years old, after all.
Nevertheless, I did miss JLA #82 when it came out, for whatever reason. But I wasn’t going to let that stop me from picking up the second and concluding chapter of the story in #83, when that issue arrived in the spinner racks in late July. Especially once that I knew, courtesy of the book’s cover (a moody piece inked, and perhaps pencilled, by Murphy Anderson), that the story featured the return of the Spectre — an early favorite character of mine, whose Silver Age series (now cancelled) I’d followed regularly (or tried to, anyway) ever since the revived Golden Age hero’s third tryout appearance in Showcase (drawn by Anderson, incidentally). The last time I’d seen the Astral Avenger had been in the ninth and penultimate issue (Mar.-Apr., 1969) of his title, in which, following his ruthless execution of a criminal, the divine “Voice” that had originally given him his powers bound him to investigate and judge the lives of those mortals named in a “Journal of Judgment”. Had the Ghostly Guardian already finished serving his sentence? If so, what was he doing hanging out in this spooky-looking crypt? I had to find out.
The story in JLA #83, “Where Valor Fails… Will Magic Triumph?” was by the series’ regular team of writer Denny O’Neil, penciller Dick Dillin, and inker Joe Giella. (As things turned out, it would be the last story produced by this team, though I didn’t know that yet.) This being the second part of a two-issue tale, the comic’s first page was devoted to recapping the events of the previous chapter:
This single page, sparse of copy as it is, does a pretty good job of explaining what’s come before — better than O’Neil had managed in his last JLA two-parter, for sure. But even though my younger self managed to get by with only this much information back in July, 1970, it may yet be worthwhile to clarify a few points for you, dear reader, especially if you’ve never read JLA #82 before (or even if it’s just been a few years/decades since you did so). Therefore, we present the following:
Why does Creator² want to “make a perfectly splendid new planet” in the first place? Quite simply, because he’s been contracted to do so by a client. The dude’s only in it for the money, in other words, and no, he’s not particularly concerned that his creative process will result in the destruction of all life on two existing worlds. As he tells his underlings on page 20 of issue #82: “…I have studied their history — a chronicle of war, slavery, brutality, ugliness… Surely civilization loses nothing from the destruction of such barbarians!” Pretty harsh, if not entirely inaccurate.
And how does the Red Tornado, the mishap-prone android (and would-be JSAer) introduced back in JLA #64 (Aug., 1968) figure into this plan? Well, Reddy’s tornado powers allow him to traverse the dimensional gulf between Earths One and Two, meaning that he’s attuned to the vibrations of both worlds. All Creator² and his minions have to do is stick a “harmonizer” in Reddy’s metal noggin, drop him into interdimensional space at the central point between the Earths, and then wait for nature to take its course — i.e., for the two Earths to move inexorably towards each other, until they ultimately, and catastrophically collide.
While waiting for the big boom, however, Creator² sends his servitors to Earth-Two to plant “matrix correctors”, intended to “ensure the proper type of explosions” when the worlds collide. These devices, fashioned in the form of “web-snares”, have also been designed to counter the powers of the Justice Society. But when three JSAers do in fact get taken down by these web-snares, there’s an unintended consequence, as their JLA analogues on Earth-One are neutralized as well (as dramatized on Neal Adams’ cover for #82, shown near the top of this post) — though why Earth-One’s Batman should be considered an analogue for Doctor Mid-Nite, when Earth-Two has its own Batman, is a bit of a head-scratcher.
Once they realize something strange is going on with the dimensional barrier between the Earths, the Justice League begins to speculate on what might be causing it — and Black Canary leaps to the conclusion that it must be her. After all, she’s a native of Earth-Two (and a former JSA member), though she’s been living on Earth-One since the tragic events of JLA #74 (Sept., 1969). She’s wrong, of course, but the JLA doesn’t know that — and if they don’t discover the truth in time, they may end up making a decision that they’ll all later regret.
There’s one more thing to note before we proceed on with issue #83’s conclusion of the story, and it’s something I picked up on as soon as I read the comic’s first page, back in 1970: the story’s basic premise of a pending disastrous collision between Earth-One and Earth-Two had been done before, in the 1966 JLA-JSA team-up tale that ran in JLA #46 and #47 (my own first such event). As would soon become evident, there were enough echoes of that earlier epic in this one tthat one might be tempted to call it O’Neil’s adaptation of the original story, which was scripted by Gardner Fox.
The JSAers fight valiantly against the “snare-nets”, as they’re now called, but, just as Creator² promised, the devices have been programmed to counter the heroes’ powers; and Starman, Wonder Woman, and Hourman quickly fall before them.
Meanwhile, back in the JLA’s satellite HQ, the Earth-One heroes continue to argue over whether Black Canary is or isn’t the cause of the current crisis, and what they should do about it if she is. Green Lantern comes up with the idea that perhaps they could place her in a third dimension, “one where her vibrations would be harmonious — and harmless!” He heads straight out into the interdimensional void, intent on scouring “the space-time matrices” for such a place…
While GL strives to reach Red Tornado, back on Earth-One, a disturbing phenomenon which has already occurred once (in issue #82) makes a return appearance:
The notion that everyone on Earth-One has an exact doppelgänger on Earth-Two doesn’t really square up all that well with what we know about the relationship between these two parallel worlds, where the rule up until now has been similarity, rather than duplication (the two Green Lanterns and two Flashes are hardly doubles of each other, after all, and even the heroes with closer counterparts — Superman, Wonder Woman, et al — have a significant age gap to distinguish between them). But it makes for an eerie, unsettling tableau — as well as a interesting contrast with Gardner Fox’s earlier “worlds collide” tale, in which a somewhat similar scenario — in Fox’s take, ordinary people suddenly found themselves switched between Earths — was played (at least in part) for laughs, as seen in the panel from JLA #46 shown at right. (Art by Mike Sekowsky and Sid Greene.)
Back at the JSA’s Earth-Two headquarters, things are looking grim; Hawkman has now fallen to the snare-nets (causing his Earth-One counterpart to simultaneously collapse, as well)…
As it turns out, the fretting Green Lantern is the next JSAer to meet defeat, as those darn snare-nets prove capable not only of withstanding his ring-blasts, but of using the energy of those blasts to begin changing themselves…
Black Canary figures she’ll just set the JLA’s transporter controls to beam her atoms into the void of space, but Green Arrow is having none of that. (By July, 1970, Ollie and Dinah’s romantic relationship had advanced considerably since I’d last seen the couple in January’s issue #79, courtesy of O’Neil’s scripts for both JLA and Green Lantern.) The Atom, however, convinces them that they can afford to wait another 20 minutes before they have to make a final decision.
In the summer of 1970, the Spectre’s imprisonment in a crypt was a mystery to me, though I assumed it had some sort of connection with the Journal of Judgment that the “ghost who walks” (wait, isn’t that another guy?) got saddled with back in Spectre #9. But it must have been even more of a puzzler to fans who had read JLA #82 (as I had not), since the hero had actually appeared on page 20 of that issue:
It’s worth noting that, in addition to the Spectre, the panel above features several other Justice Society members who otherwise play no role in the entire two-part story, including Sandman, Mr. Terrific, Wildcat, and even Batman*. In fact, with the exception of Robin (who officially joined the team in JLA #55), and the three “missing” heroes (Superman, Flash, and Dr. Mid-Nite), every member of the JSA is included. This is pure speculation on my part, but I wonder if the decision to have penciller Dick Dillin draw this scene as an “all hands on deck” moment might have been made by editor Julius Schwartz after O’Neil had already turned in his script for the issue. It’s true that the Spectre actually has a line of dialogue in the scene, and that he’s specifically addressed by name by Dr. Fate; but those bits could be explained as changes made by Schwartz at the editing stage. In any event, I believe this theory could go some ways towards explaining not only the incongruities in how the Spectre is handled in the story, but also how O’Neil’s script for #82 can claim with a straight face that Dr. Mid-Nite is the Earth-Two equivalent of “our” Batman when the Earth-Two Batman is, you know, sitting right there. Not to mention the odd business of the JSA’s Bats, Sandman, Mr. Terrific, and Wildcat all going AWOL in the midst of a planet-shattering crisis, immediately following this scene. (Not cool, guys.)
Any way you slice it, however, the inconsistency between the Spectre’s appearances in JLA #82 and #83 represents a whopper of a continuity gaffe. And while I’m sure it’s possible to craft an “explanation” for the resulting narrative dissonance, I think most of us would probably be better served by acknowledging this error for what it is, excising the last panel of JLA #82, page 20 from our respective headcanons, and moving on. (Though if you’re the kind of person who happens to enjoy crafting clever solutions to continuity flubs as a creative exercise, go right ahead. You do you, fellow fan!)
This sequence presents one of this story’s most obvious parallels to 1966’s JLA-JSA team-up, as the Spectre used the exact same method in that earlier tale to prevent (or at least delay) the two Earths from colliding, as you can see in the panel shown below (art by Mike Sekowsky and Sid Greene):
Returning to JLA #83, we find Creator² gloating to his staff as the moments count down towards interdimensional catastrophe…
We never do see any survivors from page 20’s explosion, so I think it’s safe to assume that Doctor Fate has indeed annihilated (to borrow the Doc’s own word from the page’s first panel) Creator² and all his associates. This sequence is strongly reminiscent of the climax of the previous year’s JLA-JSA team-up event (also scripted by O’Neil), in which the two Green Lanterns deliver equally final justice to a villainous sentient star named Aquarius. In both stories, O’Neil arranges matters so that it’s difficult to see any other option save for the lethal one ultimately taken by the heroes; nevertheless, it’s interesting that neither of these situations is framed as presenting any sort of moral dilemma, especially in the context of the notion one frequently hears expressed by comics fans of my generation, that superheroes never killed their enemies back in “our” day. Sequences like the ones in JLA #74 and #83 serve as evidence that the reality was rather more complicated than that.
There’s another question raised by Dr. Fate’s actions, as well, one that’s less about superheroic ethics and more about simple narrative plausibility: If Fate had the power to take out the alien menace all along, why the heck didn’t he polish off those nutty snare-nets/web-snares earlier in the issue? He couldn’t be bothered to make the necessary “tremendous effort” until right before both Earths were going to be destroyed? That’s cutting it pretty close, Doc.
“…a moving sequence, and a fittingly heroic end to the Spectre’s saga…” So wrote your humble blogger in an article for the fanzine Amazing Heroes, some 33 years ago.** And so it was, and is, but even so, there was still one question it raised in my young mind back in July, 1970 (and I’m sure did in many other fans’ minds, as well) — namely, how come the Spectre couldn’t pull himself back together again after being blasted apart, the way he’d done back in JLA #47?
In that earlier story, the threat of Earths One and Two’s colliding had been averted in a somewhat similar fashion to what happens here, as the Atom applied his size-and-weight control powers to the Spectre (who, you’ll remember, was keeping the two Earths apart with his own body), first shrinking him down to one inch in size (!), and then making him really big really fast, causing an explosion that not only blew Spec apart, but also put Earth One and Earth Two back where they were supposed to be. The end result, however, was rather different (art by Mike Sekowsky and Sid Greene):
You’d think that if the Spectre was able to maintain enough control of the “elements” of his “spirit body” to allow him to eventually reincorporate back in 1966, he should have been able to do so in 1970, as well, wouldn’t you? Hmmm…
Back in July, 1970, I’m pretty sure that I had few doubts that the Spectre would indeed return one of these days (especially since, due to my recollection of JLA #47, I wasn’t sure why his experiences in issue #83 should have killed him in the first place). And I was right, of course — although I certainly had no idea that the next time we readers saw Spec, it would be in the context of a new series that pretty much completely ignored not just this story, but all of the character’s prior continuity, as the Astral Avenger embarked on a spree of summarily (if colorfully) executing ordinary human criminals — which, of course, was just the sort of thing that had gotten the Astral Avenger saddled with the Journal of Judgment in the first place, back in Spectre #9. But further discussion on this topic will have to wait for another post, in another year (2023, to be precise).
The 83rd issue of Justice League of America, in addition to featuring the (apparent) final appearance of the Spectre, also marked another, less ambiguous ending: the conclusion of Denny O’Neil’s tenure as the series’ writer.
O’Neil — whom, as most of this blog’s readers will be aware, passed away last month at the age of 81 — was only the second scripter to write the Justice League, having succeeded the original wordsmith, Gardner Fox, with issue #66. The young writer’s two-year tenure had been marked from the beginning by a greater emphasis on characterization; in recent issues, he’d introduced more socially relevant themes (as in #78-79’s anti-pollution parable), and had launched DC’s premier super-team into what would later be fondly remembered as the “Satellite Era”. But the writer never found the series to be an entirely comfortable fit. As he told interviewer Michael Eury for The Justice League Companion (TwoMorrows, 2005):
There are technical problems involved with writing Justice League, and other later writers solved them far better than I did. I quit the book when I realized, “I am about to do my third alien invasion in six months.”
After his departure from JLA, O’Neil would continue on with his other assignments for editor Julius Schwartz, including the collaborations with artist Neal Adams, on “Batman” and Green Lantern, through which he would achieve his greatest renown. Meanwhile, Justice League of America would pass on to another, even younger scribe, Mike Friedrich. But before Friedrich’s run could get started, DC would release a single “interim” issue of JLA penned by yet another writer — an industry veteran who, like Fox, had been around since the Golden Age: Robert Kanigher.
And to learn more about how that went, you’ll only have to wait until this September, when I’ll be blogging about JLA #84. I hope to see you then.
*This is actually the very first appearance of the Earth-Two Batman (in DC’s Silver/Bronze Age continuity, that is; his “real” first appearance would of course have been in Detective Comics #27 [May, 1939]).
**”The Lives and Deaths of Jim Corrigan, Alias… the Spectre: Part One of a Hero History”, Amazing Heroes #112 (March 1, 1987), pp. 28-35.
Justice League of America #82 was the first comic I ever bought and it introduce me to the Justice Society of Anerica. The JSA is still my favorite comic book characters to this day. Need I say ex-cellent!
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Glad you liked it, Jeff!
” . . . [T]hough why Earth-One’s Batman should be considered an analogue for Doctor Mid-Nite, when Earth-Two has its own Batman, is a bit of a head-scratcher.”
I’ve seen this question raised in most reviews of JLA # 82-3 (Aug. and Sep., 1970), including a discussion on this JLA/JSA team-up on the Captain Comics site seven years ago.
True enough, Denny O’Neil made some errors in this script, both with the depictions of certain characters and with the internal logic of the story itself. But having the Earth-One Batman collapse when Dr. Mid-Nite was overcome by the web-snare was not one of them; it fell within the logic of the menace.
Here’s what I said about it, over at the Captain Comics site, seven years ago . . .
As the story described, when one of the alien nets defeated an Earth-Two hero, his closest Earth-One counterpart was equally affected, in a Corsican Brothers fashion. Obviously, the Superman of Earth-Two’s closest counterpart is Earth-One’s Man of Steel. However, Doctor Mid-Nite has no direct Earth-One counterpart; the Earth-One Batman is the closest, so he takes the fall on his world.
What some confused some readers is they took the notion that each Earth-One hero was “reserved” for his counterpart. In other words, that the Earth-One Batman shouldn’t be affected until the Earth-Two Masked Manhunter was. But that’s not how it worked. When an Earth-Two hero succumbed to the alien net, whomever was his closest Earth-One counterpart also took the hit, whomever that counterpart was. In the case of Dr. Mid-Nite, it was the Batman. (It was the Earth-One Batman’s misfortune to be the counterpart for at least two JSA members; the net just got to Doc Mid-Nite first.)
Moreover, it’s suddenly occurred to me that writer Denny O’Neil missed a bet.
Instead of sticking the Earth-Two Batman into a one-panel cameo in the second part, which did nothing for the story but make it the answer to a trivia question, O’Neil should have used the Earth-Two Caped Crusader in the opening, instead of Dr. Mid-Nite. Seeing the original Batman in action for that brief segment would have justified putting him in the story. It also would have eliminated the confusion over the broadcast effects of the alien nets. Plus, it would have been kind of appropriate, given the World’s Finest Teams minor participation in the Golden-Age JSA tales and in the early JLA stories, to have both Supermen and Batmen taken out of action by page three.
Hope this clears it up a bit.
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Commander, I see your logic. And the story can be made to work, when you look at it that way. I’d still call it somewhat arbitrary as a plot device — I mean, why is Batman Dr. Mid-Nite’s closest Earth-One counterpart? Is it just because they’re both costumed crimefighters who prefer to do their thing in the dark? That’s pretty thin grounds, IMHO. In any event, your idea of using the Earth-Two Batman for the set-up would definitely have been the better way to go. 🙂
Alan, this was another good blog post.
Considering remarks made by Denny O’Neil over the decades, I think we might be able to attribute the mistakes and screwy plotting to the fact that O’Neil was never overly enthusiastic about super-powered characters. He absolutely preferred Batman to Superman. As you yourself quoted, O’Neil didn’t feel too much of an affinity for the JLA. He probably approached this series primarily as a job, and just set out to write decent-quality scripts, and to get them done them on schedule. O’Neil may not have been paying as close attention to JLA as he was Batman and Green Lantern / Green Arrow, which were closer to his personal interests.
Am I the only one who finds Green Lantern referring to Red Tornado as “the Justice Society’s pet android” is kind of a jerky thing? At least Hal was only *thinking* it, as opposed to saying it out loud.
Nice inking of Dick Dillin by Joe Giella on this issue. I think Giella is sometimes an underrated inker / embellisher. Giella really enhanced Dillin’s pencils. I enjoy Dillin a lot when he was paired with an inker who gave the art a more slick polished look, such as Giella and Dick Giordano and Frank McLaughlin.
One last thing: Does this story actually tell us *who* hired Creator² to destroy Earth-One and Earth-Two and create a new planet?
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Ben, I agree — Hal Jordan referring to Red Tornado as “the Justice Society’s pet android” is pretty damn jerky! It’s also consistent with the dismissive way virtually all of the members of both the JSA and JLA treated poor ol’ Reddy during this era — he was kind of like Jerry on Parks and Recreation in that regard, if you’ll pardon the non-comics reference. 🙂
I don’t believe that Creator²’s client is ever identified, in this or any later story; the implication, however, is that the client just wants a new planet, and Creator² comes up with the idea of destroying Earths One and Two to get the materials he needs all on his own. So I don’t really see it as a loose end, or at least not an important one.
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I must strenuously disagree about Giella. He ruined whomever he inked; Infantino, Sekowsky and Dillin being the frequent victims of his hackery. Justice League took an immediate step upward when he was replaced on the inks by Giordano. An interesting aside is every Italian surnamed inker other than Giordano was awful (Colletta, Tartaglione, Trapani, Giacoia, Esposito, Giella. I can speak freely as my mom’s family came from Palermo). I’ve read that Giella and editor Schwartz were best friends, which meant he was given free reign to ruin as many comics as he could. And he did, wherever his name appeared.
We are going to have to agree to disagree. As for Frank Giacoia, a lot of people liked his inking over Jack Kirby on Captain America.
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Keith just commented over on my GL #80 post that Giacoia’s inking of Neal Adams was “interesting”. He’s not exactly consistent in his opinions.
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This is another one of those classic JLA/JSA team-ups that I’ve heard about for so long and yet hadn’t ever gotten around to reading yet! I gotta say, even though the art looks great, and they story sounds like fun, those continuity errors between one issue and the next are crazy! Methinks that O’Neil was more ready to leave the series than he was even aware of….and perhaps had already left in many ways! And your point about “back in our day, superheroes never killed their enemies!” is well taken: the more I look back into the days of comics past, the more I find that such statements are based on stories that older readers have told themselves, rather than the stories that were told in the actual comic books! Thanks for another great post, Alan!
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You’re very welcome, Max!
I only ever read a small handful of DC superhero comics from the ’70s as early on, certainly by 1970, the year I turned 8, I was already a Marvel zombie, but just reading this overview of O’Neil’s JLA story gives me the feeling that he was taking quite a bit of influence from Roy Thomas on the Avengers, although O’Neil had his own unique style that became more evident in his Batman & Green Lantern/Green Arrow runs (I got samplings of both in the ’80s, having read enough about them in the Comics Journal to whet my curiosity). I’ve also read how Thomas took a lot of influence from Gardner as well as Lee, and O’Neil had worked ever so briefly for Marvel in the mid-60s, just as Thomas had worked even more briefly for DC before getting hired at Marvel. Perhaps more of the plotting was inspired by Gardner, but the greater emphasis on characterization as well as the more poetic-sounding titles strikes me as more akin to Lee or Thomas of the late Silver Age. Speaking of the GL/GA series, seems to me it was Gerber and McGregor took some influence from O’Neil’s social commentary stories in their own writing in the mid-70s, although each very much in their own manners. By 1970, certainly, the differences between the story-telling styles of Marvel & DC appear to have been growing ever narrower, particularly as the old-guard writers & editors retired, were pushed out or moved on to new positions, as with Lee, and new creative talents came aboard at both companies.
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Interesting observations, fred. In my opinion, the trend towards greater similarity between DC and Marvel just got stronger as the decade progressed. By the late ’70s, there’d been so much back-and-forth of creative talent (especially writers) between the two major companies that it was hard for me to understand fans who claimed to like only Marvel, or only DC. Since 1968, I’ve always read both, though the balance between the two has varied widely over the decades.
Nice post Alan. I confess that, unlike you, I never had much interest in Earth 2 and even less in JLA-JSA crossover stories. I will say that having recently read the “Crisis on Infinite Earths” series (1985) for the first time, thanks to you I finally now understand why the Spectre played such an important part in that storyline (which also involved an attempt to destroy the Earths) as well as the use of the Red Tornado there. As for who hired Creator2 (Creator Squared?), I think that it was obviously Benjy and Frankie Mouse from “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”, who eventually hired the Vogons for the job.
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Stuart, I think you may be on to something there!
Excellent review. Here in England, I too encountered the JLA for the first time in early 1966 when taken to the local Newspaper Shop (not a shop made out of Newspapers, but one that sold them). I noted the brightly coloured Comics on the spinner rack which appeared far superior to British Comics of the day. I too was drawn to the DC Comics rather than the Marvel one’s with titles such as Action Comics, Adventure Comics and my all time favourite “Green Lantern”. I didn’t realise at the time that they were American comics, but was captivated by the fantastic covers. Just loved the Sekowsky/Greene JLA, but noticed a change around 1968 in the appearance of the JLA (later to be revealed as Dick Dillin art, which I didn’t appreciate at the time). Always loved the JSA crossovers every summer, highlight of the comics year for me (especially the Sekowsky drawn issues). Well done, greatblog.
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Glad you enjoyed the post, David! And thanks for the clarification about the Newspaper Shop — I might have become confused. 🙂
Although he had some quirky anatomy, I consider Mike Sekowsky to one of the best the industry ever had. He could work in any genre, combining speed with an energy that burst onto the page. It’s a shame he didn’t seem to work out at Marvel after leaving DC as I would have loved to see him unleashed on the MU. To me, his karate chopping Wonder Woman was a highlight of any decade, although it too has suffered its share of modern day maligning.
Another enjoyable post. Minor typo:
“I don’t believe that Creator²’s client is never identified”
“I don’t believe that Creator²’s client is ever identified”
Was “the reason the Spectre abides in this crypt” ever revealed?
I don’t believe so, no. The next time the character shows up is in the early ’70s series in Adventure Comics, and continuity is pretty much out the window at that point.
Actually Doctor Fate did have an Earth-One counterpart and they did not get along when they met. His identity was confirmed in World’s Finest Comics #201.
A Batman tale around this time may explain the connection with Doctor Mid-Nite as to being counterparts https://earth-one-earth-two.blogspot.com/2013/10/masked-midnight-manhunters-incredible.html
And possibly the identity of Creator2’s clients needing a new world was revealed a year later in World’s Finest Comics #208. https://earth-one-earth-two.blogspot.com/2022/01/the-master-plan-of-buddak-or-mirror.html
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